Wifiphisher - Automated Phishing Attacks Against WiFi Networks

Wifiphisher - Tool For Performing Automated Phishing Attacks Against WiFi Networks

Wifiphisher is a security tool that mounts automated victim-customized phishing attacks against WiFi clients in order to obtain credentials or infect the victims with malwares. It is primarily a social engineering attack that unlike other methods it does not include any brute forcing. It is an easy way for obtaining credentials from captive portals and third-party login pages (e.g. in social networks) or WPA/WPA2 pre-shared keys.


Following are the requirements for getting the most out of Wifiphisher:
  • Kali Linux. Although people have made Wifiphisher work on other distros, Kali Linux is the officially supported distribution, thus all new features are primarily tested on this platform.
  • One wireless network adapter that supports AP & Monitor mode and is capable of injection. For advanced mode, you need two cards; one that supports AP mode and another that supports Monitor mode. Drivers should support netlink.


wifiphisher [Options]


-h, --help	      show this help message and exit

-s SKIP, --skip       Skip deauthing this MAC address. Example: -s 00:11:BB:33:44:AA
-jI                   Manually choose an interface that supports monitor mode for                                                               
JAMMINGINTERFACE,     deauthenticating the victims. Example: -jI wlan1
-aI APINTERFACE,      Manually choose an interface that supports AP mode for                                                              
--apinterface         spawning an AP. Example: -aI wlan0
-t TIMEINTERVAL,      Choose the time interval between DEAUTH packets being sent
-dP DEAUTHPACKETS,    Choose the number of packets to send in each deauth burst.  
--deauthpackets       Default value is 1; 1 packet to the client and 1 packet  
DEAUTHPACKETS	      to the AP. Send 2 deauth packets to the client and 2 deauth
                      packets to the AP: -p 2
-d,                   Skip the deauthentication packets to the broadcast address  
--directedonly	      of the access points and only send them to client/AP pairs
-nJ,                  Skip the deauthentication phase. When this option is used,  
--nojamming	      only one wireless interface is required                                  
-e ESSID,             Enter the ESSID of the rogue Access Point. This option will  
--essid ESSID	      skip Access Point selection phase. Example: --essid 'Free WiFi'                                  
-p                    Choose the phishing scenario to run.This option will skip 
PHISHINGSCENARIO,     the scenario selection phase. Example: -p firmware_upgrade
-pK PRESHAREDKEY,     Add WPA/WPA2 protection on the rogue Access Point.
--presharedkey        Example: -pK s3cr3tp4ssw0rd


wifiphisher -aI wlan0 -jI wlan4 -p firmware-upgrade
Use wlan0 for spawning the rogue Access Point and wlan4 for DoS attacks. Select the target network manually from the list and perform the "Firmware Upgrade" scenario.

Useful for manually selecting the wireless adapters. The "Firware Upgrade" scenario is an easy way for obtaining the PSK from a password-protected network.

wifiphisher --essid CONFERENCE_WIFI -p plugin_update -pK s3cr3tp4ssw0rd
Automatically pick the right interfaces. Target the Wi-Fi with ESSID "CONFERENCE_WIFI" and perform the "Plugin Update" scenario. The Evil Twin will be password-protected with PSK "s3cr3tp4ssw0rd".

Useful against networks with disclosed PSKs (e.g. in conferences). The "Plugin Update" scenario provides an easy way for getting the victims to download malicious executables (e.g. malwares containing a reverse shell payload).

wifiphisher --nojamming --essid "FREE WI-FI" -p oauth-login
Do not target any network. Simply spawn an open Wi-Fi network with ESSID "FREE WI-FI" and perform the "OAuth Login" scenario.

Useful against victims in public areas. The OAuth Login scenario provides a simple way for capturing credentials from social networks, like Facebook.

How It Works

After achieving a man-in-the-middle position using the Evil Twin or KARMA attack, Wifiphisher redirects all HTTP requests to an attacker-controlled phishing page.

From the victim's perspective, the attack makes use in three phases:
  • Victim is being deauthenticated from her access point: Wifiphisher continuously jams all of the target access point's wifi devices within range by forging "Deauthenticate" or "Disassociate" packets to disrupt existing associations.
  • Victim joins a rogue access point: Wifiphisher sniffs the area and copies the target access point's settings. It then creates a rogue wireless access point that is modeled by the target. It also sets up a NAT/DHCP server and forwards the right ports. Consequently, because of the jamming, clients will eventually start connecting to the rogue access point. After this phase, the victim is MiTMed. Furthermore, Wifiphisher listens to probe request frames and spoofs "known" open networks to cause automatic association.
  • Victim is being served a realistic specially-customized phishing page: Wifiphisher employs a minimal web server that responds to HTTP & HTTPS requests. As soon as the victim requests a page from the Internet, wifiphisher will respond with a realistic fake page that asks for credentials or serves malwares. This page will be specifically crafted for the victim. For example, a router config-looking page will contain logos of the victim's vendor. The tool supports community-built templates for different phishing scenarios.

Phishing Scenarios:

Wifiphisher supports community-built templates for different phishing scenarios. Currently, the following phishing scenarios are in place:
  • Firmware Upgrade Page: A router configuration page without logos or brands asking for WPA/WPA2 password due to a firmware upgrade. Mobile-friendly.
  • OAuth Login Page: A free Wi-Fi Service asking for Facebook credentials to authenticate using OAuth.
  • Browser Plugin Update: A generic browser plugin update page that can be used to serve payloads to the victims.
  • Network Manager Connect: Imitates the behavior of the network manager. This template shows Chrome's "Connection Failed" page and displays a network manager window through the page asking for the pre-shared key. Currently, the network managers of Windows and MAC OS are supported.

You can also create a custom phishing scenario, it is easy and consists of two steps:

  • Create the config.ini

A config.ini file lies in template's root directory and its contents can be divided into two sections:
  • info: This section defines the scenario's characteristics.
    • Name (mandatory): The name of the phishing scenario
    • Description (mandatory): A quick description (<50 words) of the scenario
    • PayloadPath (optional): If the phishing scenario pushes malwares to victims, users can insert the absolute path of the malicious executable here
  • context: This section is optional and holds user-defined variables that may be later injected into the template.
Here's an example of a config.ini file:
# This is a comment
Name: ISP warning page
Description: A warning page from victim's ISP asking for DSL credentials

victim_name: John Phisher
victim_ISP: Interwebz

  • Create the template files

A template contains the static parts of the desired HTML output and may consist of several static HTML files, images, CSS or Javascript files. Dynamic languages (e.g. PHP) are not supported.

The HTML files may also contain some special syntax (think placeholders) describing how dynamic content will be inserted. The dynamic content may originate from two sources:

  • Beacon frames
Beacon frames contain all the information about the target network and can be used for information gathering. The main process gathers all the interesting information and passes them to the chosen template on the runtime.

At the time of writing, the main process passes the following data:
  • target_ap_essid <str>: The ESSID of the target Access Point
  • target_ap_bssid <str>: The BSSID (MAC) address of the target Access Point
  • target_ap_channel <str<: The channel of the target Access Point
  • target_ap_vendor <str>: The vendor's name of the target Access Point
  • target_ap_logo_path <str>: The relative path of the target Access Point vendor's logo in the filesystem
  • APs_context <list>: A list containing dictionaries of the Access Points captured during the AP selection phase
  • AP <dict>: A dictionary holding the following information regarding an Access Point:
  • channel <str>: The channel of the Access Point
  • essid <str> The ESSID of the Access Point
  • bssid <str> The BSSID (MAC) address of the Access Point
  • vendor <str> The vendor's name of the Access Point

Note that the above values may be 'None' accordingly. For example, all the target_* values will be None if the user did not target an Access Point (by using --essid option). The 'target_ap_logo_path' will be None if the logo of the specific vendor does not exist in the repository.

  • config.ini file (described above)
All the variables defined in the "Context" section may be used from within the template files. In case of naming conflicts, the variables from the configuration file will override those coming from the beacon frames.

Logging credentials:
In order for wifiphisher to know which credentials to log, the values of the 'name' HTML attributes need to be prefixed with the 'wfphshr' string. During POST requests, wifiphisher will log all variables that are prefixed with this string.

Here's a snippet from a template (index.html):

In this example, 'victim_name' and 'ISP' variables come from config.ini, while 'target_ap_vendor' variable is from the beacon frames. Both "wphshr-username" and "wphshr-password" will be logged.

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